Pilots are responsible for the safety of passengers and crew in addition to navigating complex systems and following strict procedures. It is a high-pressure job that can lead to significant stress and anxiety if not managed properly. While a certain level of alertness is useful, prolonged or chronic stress takes a physical and mental toll that can negatively impact performance. As such, developing effective stress management techniques is crucial for pilots to remain calm and focused in the cockpit.
Deep breathing is one of the simplest yet most powerful ways to promote relaxation. Consciously taking slow, deep breaths engages the parasympathetic nervous system which counters the "fight or flight" stress response (Wilson & Jarrett, 2018). When feeling stressed, pilots can take 5 minutes to practice deep breathing alone or with other crew members. Inhaling through the nose and exhaling slowly through the mouth sends signals to the brain to relax the body.
Progressive muscle relaxation is another technique that involves systematically tensing and relaxing different muscle groups from head to toe (Driskell & Salas, 1996). Starting with the face and neck, pilots should slightly tense each area for 5 seconds before releasing and noticing the sensations of relaxation. Doing this for the shoulders, arms, chest, back, stomach, legs and feet can help release built up tension when done before or after flights.
Visualization and mental rehearsal are powerful meditation tools pilots can do almost anywhere (Jiang & Chen, 2012). Taking 5 minutes to visualize themselves smoothly executing standard procedures like takeoff, cruise and landing in a calm, focused state programs the mind and body for reduced stress responses. Visualizing decompressing after flights through fun hobbies also promotes well-being.
Developing resilience through challenging oneself within limits is an important part of stress management. Exposure to controlled stress allows the body to build coping mechanisms without becoming overwhelmed (Madhavan & Lacson, 2002). For pilots, practicing demanding but realistic scenarios under supervision with instructors pushes growth while developing confidence in abilities. Debriefing afterwards also aids processing of emotions.
Social support from fellow crew members and flight staff promotes a sense of community which protects against stress. Checking in briefly with others, laughing together and venting appropriately can lower cortisol and boost morale (Stephan et al., 2016). Pilots should feel comfortable expressing how they are feeling without judgment to blow off steam in a healthy way. Group stress management activities like yoga or meditation classes can foster strong connections as well.
Finally, maintaining a balanced lifestyle including adequate nutrition, hydration, rest and hobbies outside of work allows pilots to recharge and maintain perspective (Martinussen et al., 2017). Designing a schedule with days off to detach from stresses using enjoyable activities improves well-being. A balanced approach of making time for work responsibilities as well as self-care is key to sustainable stress management long-term as a pilot.
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Madhavan, P., & Lacson, F. C. (2002). Psychological preparation and coping behaviors of pilots in portraying extraordinary performance under stress. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 73(4), 351-358.
Martinussen, M., Richardsen, A. M., & Burke, R. J. (2007). Job demands, job resources, and burnout among police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(3), 239-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.03.001
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Wilson, V. E., & Jarrett, R. L. (2018). Stress management techniques for pilots. Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8(2), 151-158. https://doi.org/10.5964/jsp.v8i2.199