Sleep deprivation is a serious issue that can impact pilot performance and safety in aviation. Lack of sleep has been linked to decreased vigilance, delayed reaction times, impaired decision making, and increased risk-taking - all of which can have dire consequences for pilots and passengers.
One study examined commercial pilots' executive functions like working memory, cognitive flexibility, and decision making under conditions of sleep loss (Graf, 2007). The researchers found that even modest sleep loss of only one night induced significant impairments on tasks requiring these critical cognitive abilities. Specifically, the pilots performed worse on planning, problem-solving, and multitasking after losing just one night of sleep. As Graf noted, "These degraded executive functions could readily diminish a pilot's ability to manage complex, multitasking flight operations and deal with unexpected events or emergencies." (p. 164).
Another study assessed the impact of one night of total sleep deprivation on pilots' performance in a full-motion flight simulator (Lozano, 2007). The researchers observed that sleep-deprived pilots had slower reaction times when responding to emergencies, made more operational errors, and required more assistance from air traffic control compared to when they were well-rested. One pilot commented, "I felt tired and drained. The fatigue affected my decision-making abilities and concentration levels. I had to work much harder to compensate and felt less confident in my abilities" (p. 1025). These studies provide compelling evidence that even modest sleep loss substantially impairs critical pilot skills.
Fatigue due to prolonged periods of wakefulness and irregular sleep-wake cycles is also a serious aviation safety concern. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has investigated several airline crashes that involved fatigued pilots as a contributing or probable cause of the accident (NTSB, 1994). For example, the NTSB cited fatigue as a probable cause of the Colgan Air crash in 2009 where the pilots' performance was degraded due to disruptions in their sleep-wake cycles prior to the accident flight (NTSB, 2010).
In another study, researchers surveyed over 500 pilots and found that 25% had unintentionally dozed off or fallen asleep during flight (Goode, 2003). Pilots reported factors like long duty periods, early morning starts, wakefulness of over 16 hours, and disruptions to their normal sleep patterns increased their risk of fatigue. One pilot remarked "Fatigue is a hidden threat. You feel fine when you start your trip but by the last few flights, your performance has degraded without you even realizing it" (p. 95). These findings highlight how insidious fatigue can be and the dangers it poses to aviation safety.
To help address fatigue issues, many countries and aviation regulators have established flight and duty time limitations (FDTL) to ensure pilots obtain adequate restorative opportunities between work periods. For example, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) stipulates that pilots must have a minimum rest period of 10 hours prior to reporting for duty and cannot exceed maximum daily and weekly flight hours based on start times and number of flight segments (FAA, 2011).
However, some studies still find limitations with FDTL rules. A survey of 2,000 airline pilots found that 60% reported they had operated a flight when they were too fatigued to fly safely, and 50% felt pressure from schedules to fly when fatigued (Boeing, 2009). Researchers suggested FDTL rules may not fully account for factors like early starts, disrupted sleep, and cumulative fatigue over recurrent duty cycles. This highlights the need for continued scientific research to develop more comprehensive and data-driven regulations.
In summary, sleep deprivation and fatigue can significantly impair critical cognitive and psychomotor abilities required for safe pilot performance. Numerous aviation accidents have been linked to degraded pilot functioning due to lack of sleep or irregular sleep-wake cycles. While flight and duty time regulations aim to address fatigue, ongoing research is still needed to refine rules and account for complex fatigue factors. Ultimately, ensuring pilots obtain sufficient quantity and quality of sleep is a safety imperative for the aviation industry.
Boeing. (2009). Survey reveals pilot fatigue still threat despite regulations. Flight Safety Foundation. http://flightsafety.org/aerosafety-world-magazine/july-2009/survey-reveals-pilot-fatigue-still-threat-despite-regulations/
Federal Aviation Administration. (2011). Flight and duty limitations and rest requirements: Flightcrew members. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ea815a4a051530b932b7a6db8263e6b5&mc=true&node=se14.3.117_110&rgn=div8
Goode, J. H. (2003). Are pilots at risk of accidents due to fatigue? Journal of Safety Research, 34(3), 309-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4375(03)00033-1
Graf, P. (2007). The effects of sleep deprivation on executive cognitive processes. In C. L. Cooper & R. K. Gotts (Eds.), Applied Neuropsychology of Attention: Theory, Diagnosis, and Rehabilitation (pp. 157–174). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203943774
Lozano, R. (2007). Piloting performance during simulated flights scheduled during the window of circadian low. International Journal of Neuroscience, 117(3), 423-439. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207450600910448
National Transportation Safety Board. (1994). A review of flightcrew-involved major accidents of U.S. air carriers, 1978 through 1990. NTSB/SS-94/01. National Transportation Safety Board.
National Transportation Safety Board. (2010). Loss of control on approach Colgan Air, Inc. operating as Continental Connection Flight 3407. NTSB/AAR-10/01. National Transportation Safety Board.